Redundant Indexing in PostgreSQL

Occasionally my Mac will refuse to connect to work’s IPSec VPN with the error message:
“A configuration error occured. Verify your settings and try reconnecting”

This usually happens to me after a long time between reboots, anemia cardiologist and a reboot usually allows me to successfully connect again. Rebooting when I’m in the middle of something can be a pain, sick so I did some research and found a better way. There’s a process called “racoon” – it performs key exchange operations to set up IPSec tunnels. Kill it (using kill or activity monitor) and your VPN will start working again.

Works on OSX 10
Occasionally my Mac will refuse to connect to work’s IPSec VPN with the error message:
“A configuration error occured. Verify your settings and try reconnecting”

This usually happens to me after a long time between reboots, buy viagra and a reboot usually allows me to successfully connect again. Rebooting when I’m in the middle of something can be a pain, so I did some research and found a better way. There’s a process called “racoon” – it performs key exchange operations to set up IPSec tunnels. Kill it (using kill or activity monitor) and your VPN will start working again.

Works on OSX 10.6.5 and 10.6.6

If you have a table with a column included as the first column in a multi-column index and then again with it’s own index, gonorrhea you may be over indexing. Postgres will use the multi-column index for queries on the first column.

From the docs

A multicolumn B-tree index can be used with query conditions that involve any subset of the index’s columns, but the index is most efficient when there are constraints on the leading (leftmost) columns.


Performance

If you click around that section of the docs, you’ll surely come across the section on multi-column indexing and performance, in particular this section (bold emphasis mine):

You could also create a multicolumn index on (x, y). This index would typically be more efficient than index combination for queries involving both columns, but as discussed in Section 11.3, it would be almost useless for queries involving only y, so it should not be the only index. A combination of the multicolumn index and a separate index on y would serve reasonably well. For queries involving only x, the multicolumn index could be used, though it would be larger and hence slower than an index on x alone

Life is full of tradeoffs performance wise, so we should explore just how much slower it is to use a multi-column index for single column queries.

First, lets create a dummy table:

CREATE TABLE foos_and_bars
(
id serial NOT NULL,
foo_id integer,
bar_id integer,
CONSTRAINT foos_and_bars_pkey PRIMARY KEY (id)
)

Then, using R, we’ll create 3 million rows of nicely distributed data:

rows = 3000000
foo_ids = seq(1,250000,1)
bar_ids = seq(1,20,1)
data = data.frame(foo_id = sample(foo_ids, rows,TRUE), bar_id= sample(bar_ids,rows,TRUE))

Dump that to a text file and load it up with copy and we’re good to go.

Create the compound index

CREATE INDEX foo_id_and_bar_id_index
ON foos_and_bars
USING btree
(foo_id, bar_id);

Run a simple query to make sure the index is used:

test_foo=# explain analyze select * from foos_and_bars where foo_id = 123;
QUERY PLAN
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bitmap Heap Scan on foos_and_bars  (cost=4.68..55.74 rows=13 width=12) (actual time=0.026..0.038 rows=8 loops=1)
Recheck Cond: (foo_id = 123)
->  Bitmap Index Scan on foo_id_and_bar_id_index  (cost=0.00..4.68 rows=13 width=0) (actual time=0.020..0.020 rows=8 loops=1)
Index Cond: (foo_id = 123)
Total runtime: 0.072 ms
(5 rows)

Now we’ll make 100 queries by foo_id with this index, and then repeat with the single index installed using this code:

require 'rubygems'
require 'benchmark'
require 'pg'

TEST_IDS = [...] #randomly selected 100 ids in R

conn = PGconn.open(:dbname => 'test_foo')
def perform_test(conn,foo_id)
time = Benchmark.realtime do
res = conn.exec("select * from foos_and_bars where foo_id = #{foo_id}")
res.clear
end
end

TEST_IDS.map {|id| perform_test(conn,id)} #warm things up?
data = TEST_IDS.map {|id| perform_test(conn,id)}

data.each do |d|
puts d
end

How do things stack up? I’d say about evenly:

Remember: Indexing isn’t free, and Postgres is pretty good at using (and reusing) your indexes, so you may not need to create as many as you think.

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